Semantics and Ambiguity

Semantics and Ambiguity

Andrew Charniga

Word of Mouth Science & the Absence of Reason

In the wake of the women’s world cup the number of injured athletes who missed the soccer tournament mounted; the same knee jerk reaction of the consummately clueless has been to point a finger at the usual suspects: inequality of treatment (see below quote) and a call to the medical – academic community to “solve this” dilemma. Neither the assertion of prejudice against women (males typically are injured more often than women in American sport); nor the solution, a call for more research is true: that would be akin to asking firemen to start fires.   

For instance:

“I think the amount of ACL injuries in professional women’s soccer in the last two years has just been shocking,”. If this happened on the men’s side, we would’ve immediately seen a reaction of how are we going to solve this and figure this out and make sure that these players are going to be available at the biggest moments of their career.”

Seeking solutions from the academic/medical community to mitigate the American injury problematic is the most common knee jerk reaction. Specialized research of female athletes; as implied in the statement above; is fruitless due to the presence of serious logistical flaws.

Researching ‘Mythogeny’

“Woman has been measured and judged against the norm of man, the essential human subject” (A. King, 2010

1/ research of female injury susceptibility is terribly flawed; and that is putting it mildly. This research has been and is still based on entrenched bias and false belief in the inherent inferiority of the female body. The glaring flaws of the so – called evidence based research can be encapsulated in the numerous fallacies accepted as fact: women are innately unstable, with loose ligaments, hormones that fluctuate radically (who decides what is radical fluctuation?); a wide pelvis makes knees susceptible to injury; estrogen latches onto ligaments and weakens them, muscle imbalances, and so on and so forth.

“In almost every domain of life, men are considered the normal human being , and women are considered “abnormal” , deficient because they are different from men.” Carol Tarvis, The Mismeasure of woman, 1992

2/ research of injury susceptibility of female athletes is terribly flawed in large part due to more research against a backdrop of widely held perceptions of female inferiority; is the apex of the problem.

3/ research of injury susceptibility of female athletes against a backdrop of bias, discounts the possibility there is nothing inherently wrong with women’s’ bodies; this, despite, differentiation and defective are entirely dissimilar constructs. 

In a nutshell, researchers of injury susceptibility of the female athlete in sport focus on the preposterous premise of altering unalterable inherent traits: undulating fluctuation of hormones, mobility of joints, inherent skeletal features, extensibility of ligaments, and so forth, i.e., drawing lines, nature itself refused to draw.     

Nonetheless, the decades old bias of superior/inferior differentiated by sex remain essentially unchanged, i.e., a prolonged history of confusing social stratification with Biology:

 “Physicians saw woman as the product and prisoner of her reproductive system. .. Woman’s uterus and ovaries controlled her body and behavior from puberty to menopause. The male reproductive system, male physicians assured no parallel degree of control over man’s body.

“Doctors connected not only the paralyses and headaches of the hysteric to uterine disease but also ailments in virtually every part of the body.” (Rosenberg, 2004)  

The dystopian world created by the American medical/academic community is framed by a stability/instability differentiation, especially the application of such a distinction between the sexes. It is the foundation of the injury epidemic.

“Education is what remains after one has forgotten what one has learned in school”, Albert Einstein

An omnipresent overhang on American sport (especially women’s) is the convoluted adhesion of academia – medicine – rehabilitation – sports medicine – athletic training – strength and conditioning; all linked to sports science. In point of fact, real, not academic, sport science is the business of adaptation, physiological/psychological potential, biological reactions to overcome the stress/strains of training for sport; necessities for survival; especially in ultra – high intensity sports such as weightlifting.

By contrast, the aforementioned academic – medical complex overhanging American sport is the business of perceived normativism; with the male body perceived to be the “norm of man”.

However, improbable it may sound, it is nonetheless a virtual certainty, the aforementioned overhang is the primary  root cause of the exploding injury epidemic in American sport; especially, the all too pervasive non – contact lower extremity variety. This is a disease afflicting athletes of both sexes, across a wide spectrum of American sport; football (all levels) basketball, soccer (especially female), baseball, lacrosse and so on and so on.  

Various essays (Charniga, have documented the unlikely rise, now common, Achilles tendon rupture, averaging 22 – 25 a year in the NFL alone; the incidence of anterior cruciate ligament tear (ACL); especially among young female athletes; of at least 200,000 per year in the USA (males and females combined). Furthermore, incidence of ACL injury continues to rise at an annual rate of +2% annually for females; not despite, but, because of many years of research.  

Yet, the call for more research; a harken to the PhDs, the sports medicine doctors, and others to come to the rescue; is not new (see Sokolove, 2008); it is nonetheless, irrational. Why? These groups of ‘thoughtless thinkers’ have only made the problem worse.

Here is a for instance of the unreliability of the research of injury susceptibility ‘because of many years of research’. The rate of the omnipresent hamstring injury across a wide spectrum of field and court sports remains essentially unchanged despite over 50 years of research (Maniar, N. et al Maniar N, et al. Br J Sports Med 2022).

Just think of all those university accredited scientists, with all those initials; who wasted all that money on nondescript research?

“Been around the world and found that only stupid people are breeding, the cretins cloning and feeding and I don’t even own a TV.” Harvey Danger

As mind boggling the lower extremity ACL injury epidemic; an entire host of maladies have become commonplace across the landscape of American sport: Achilles tendon rupture; Lisfranc fracture (falling off a horse), Jones fracture; pedal fracture (car accident); tibial plateau fractures (hit by car bumper crossing the street) hamstring tear, plantar fascia tear; a wide variety of ankle sprains and fractures.

Ankle injuries are the single most prevalent injury; yet university accredited practitioners (athletic trainers) apply thousands of miles of athletic tape annually to bind athletes’ feet, their ankles; even taping feet to shoes (called spatting).

The practice of ‘university approved’ chronic taping of feet, ankles and shoes to feet is a modern-day version of the centuries old Chinese practice of foot binding (women); creating a solid foundation of injury susceptibility in the process. Some major university athletic departments staff as many as 25 of these certified crippling enablers of America’s youth.

Somehow, or other, this group of university accredited foot binders reside in a bizarre place; they are under the delusion movements of the 32 articulations of each foot and the ankle joint must be restricted for safety. This despite Da Vinci’s hundreds of years old assertion “the human foot is a miracle of engineering and a work of art”. 

Some figures encapsulating an omnipresent and growing injury problematic in the USA:          

  • “More than 30, 000 serious knee injuries are projected to occur in female intercollegiate and high school athletics in the US each year. The majority of these injuries occur by non-contact mechanisms, most often during landing from a jump or making a lateral pivot while running. Hewett, T., 2012
  • Some peak numbers from the NFL 2021 -22 season: Achilles rupture- 25; knee injuries – 146; hamstring – 44; peak injuries to knee and below: 265; players listed as “injured reserve” on 02/15/22: 455
  • This injury {ACL tear} is rampant. There are approximately 250 – 300,000 ACL injuries per year in the USA which happen almost exclusively to athletes; however, injury to the MCL ligament of the knee is most prevalent {Phisikul, P., 2006)
  • ACL injuries continue to be extremely common in the young athlete population, increasing 2.3% per year, with a current annual incidence of 200,000 injuries. Most of these occur in the high school/college age group; US Pharmacist
  • Assuming only a 10% differential between ACL and MCL injury that means at minimum there are approximately 575 – 630,000 torn or otherwise injured ACL/MCLs in the USA annually;
  • Of just these annual ACL injuries, at least 140 – 210,000 will require surgery; Phisikul, P., 2006)
  • “Unfortunately, regardless of treatment, athletes with ACL injuries are up to 10 times more likely to develop degenerative arthritis of the knee.“ Labella, C. et al,  Pediatrics, 05/2014:133:5
  • 1,000,000+ joint (knee and hip inclusive) replacement surgeries are performed annually in the USA;
  • The anticipated annual demand (3.48 million) for knee and 572,000 hip replacement surgeries is expected to outstrip the number of available surgeons by 2030;
  • Females are 7 – 10 times more likely to suffer ACL tears

A consilience of induction has confirmed the academic/medical complex; which is an omnipresent, overbearing, ‘overhang’, is the primary, if not the exclusive source of this injury epidemic spanning a wide spectrum of American sport. Regardless sex, the commonality of exercise techniques, rehab protocols, excessive medical oversight, university contrived exercise protocols, commercialized exercise science and so forth; constitute the common root causes of the prolonged rise in injury susceptibility (see Charniga,

Roughly the same injuries are commonplace in different sports, under different circumstances, with different footwear, field and court surfaces (wood, grass, artificial turf), sex of athletes. What can be the upshot of all the scientific research into injury susceptibility?: 

  • “In the last decade, the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury rate has doubled in the young competitive population involved in pivoting sports “. (Weitz et al., 2020).

Ignorance defined as a convexity of stability vs. instability

If one were to single out a semantic of ignorance which ultimately sabotages females (males as well) in sport, i.e., a hazardous precept of the ‘medical – academic – overhang’; it would be the word(s) stability (stable) and its antonym instability. What is not stable is unstable, and, vice versa. Generally, more often than not males are stable; females unstable. Female ligaments are made loose (lax) by estrogen which make their joints unstable. Male ligaments are tightened by testosterone; hence, male joints are stable. And, so on, ignorance is piled on top of ignorance.

Stability has mostly positive connotation; while on the other hand its antonym, instability has mostly negative. Stable prices, stable marriage, stable relationships, stable interest rates, stable business outlook, and so on and so on; all positive connotations. Stability is deemed a good thing. Conversely, substitute the antonyms of stability: unstable/instability and the positive connotations are reversed.

Most people have heard of the analects of Confucius; few are aware its actual hierarchical connotation:

“According to the doctrine of Confucius femininity is Yin and masculinity Yang. Which in turn mean “femininity is negative, soft, dark and weak, masculinity is positive, hard, bright and strong”. (FAN Hong, 1997)

It is not happenstance that the qualities of femininity (Yin) are literally and figuratively negative; whereas the qualities of masculinity (Yang) are exclusively positive.

This is where that ubiquitous – vagary, stability enters the frame.

Stability is “the quality or state of something that is not easily changed or likely to change”
the quality or state of someone who is emotionally or mentally healthy” (Meriam webster)

Whereas, the antonym instability refers to:

“irregular; vacillating; liable to change; lack of emotional control.” (Meriam webster)

Is it happenstance the Confucian qualities of Yang (masculinity) roughly coincide with the semantics of stability; whereas the qualities of Yin (femininity) roughly are attributable to the antonyms instability/unstable?

Figures 1&2. The myth of a fragile female athlete is a construct of the sports medicine, the medical and academic communities; not a binary separating the sexes by nature. Female athletes typically possess large range of motion in joints; greater elasticity of tendons and ligaments; and, innate ability for reflexive relaxation of muscles. These qualities are differences; not defects. In point of fact, those qualities of differentiation are injury prophylactic. Charniga photos.

On the surface this masculine/feminine stable/unstable semantics would seem to have nothing to do with anything.

However, it has everything to do with the Darwinian scarred female body: it is different than the male body.   

Consequently, it is not surprising the antonyms and synonyms of stability and instability manage to have ubiquitous adherence to Yin/Yang {negative/positive} connotations in the literature of American sport medicine, rehabilitation, athletic training, medicine and so forth. This circumstance is all the more salient; as these words pertain to differences between sexes and susceptibility to injury in sport.

American notions of sport science comes from academia; a base of pseudo – knowledge at the epicenter of the injury epidemic. Real sport science was invented by Russians and east Europeans. On the contrary, what constitutes sport science in the USA is a subservient second fiddle to medicine; an amorphous construct of classrooms.

Difference by means of sex has nothing to do with defect of constitution.

 All knowledge of biology of sport in America is erroneously perceived to emanate from academia and specifically the graduates of medical school. Hence, a practitioner of “sports medicine” is often confused with a sports scientist. Sports medicine is not sport science.

The problematic spawned by a conglomerate of medicine – rehabilitation – athletic training – academia  – strength and conditioning – sports medicine, i.e., the amalgamation of hands on the athlete professions in American sport is not just the spread; it constitutes a contagion; an interchangeability of ideas across the aforementioned disciplines, i.e., most all are on the same wrong page.

An example of such a contagion of ideas: a normative delineation of a fragile, defective, female athlete; a Yin/Yang binary is an omnipresent rash on the scientific literature.

Hence, an iteration of phony injury susceptibility factors peculiar to female athletes:

“According to the current literature on non-contact ACL injury profile (Bahr, 2005; Della Villa et al., 2020; Donelon et al., 2020; Hewett & Schilaty, 2018; Lucarno et al., 2021), nine biomechanical risk factors were identified across four categories: limited lower limbs flexion (knee, hip, ankle), knee valgus collapse (knee valgus, hip abd/adduction and internal rotation), foot rotation, trunk rotation (ipsilateral bending, contra-lateral rotation)”.

“… increased risk of sustaining ACL tears from non-contact mechanisms compared to male athletes, especially after puberty. Female athletes also have a higher risk of subsequent contralateral ACL injury [9••]. Increased risk specific to female athletes may be attributed to multiple factors including anatomical (increased Q angle, narrow intercondylar notch, and increase in posterior tibial slope), hormonal, and neuro-muscular (poor core and gluteal muscle strength and increased quadriceps-to hamstring ratio)”. “Optimizing Health and Athletic Performance for Women” Celina de Borja1 & Cindy J. Chang2 & Rhonda Watkins1 & Carlin Sente / Published online: 13 January 2022 Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine (2022) 15

For instance, the above iteration of anatomical factors; sourced from other published papers; unalterable hormonal fluctuations inclusive; purportedly predisposing females to injury in sport is construed to be science. In point of fact, such a litany of defects, is a perverse retribution for Eve and the bad apple. Indeed, is it me or is it a confirmation of normalized insanity; the litany of female defects in the above quotes are the product of female authors which appear in an obtuse paper entitled: “Optimizing Health and Athletic Performance for Women” ?????

The above risk factors attributable to defects of the female body are most often referred in discussions of constitutional factors predisposing female athletes to excessive rates of injury: especially in sports such as basketball, soccer, lacrosse which feature running, cutting, pivoting movements. Indeed a torn anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is become such a common affliction of American female athletes it should be designated the ‘estrogenic’ national disease. According to the literature the injury rates continue to rise; despite years of specialized research.

It is not happenstance, risk factors for increase susceptibility to injury are linked by the ‘experts’ to comparative differences between the sexes. Furthermore, these risk factors are attributable to; you guessed it: instabilities inherent the female constitution. Such as:

  • increased pelvic width;
  • forefoot pronation;
  • heel valgus angulation;
  • pes planus;
  • external tibial torsion;
  • femoral anteversion;
  • The female hormone estrogen latches on to and weakens the ACL.
  • Because of the estrogen influence, women have less lean body mass and greater ligamentous laxity.

Considering just the above list (more can be found in the literature) of female instabilities; should we even allow young girls to play soccer and basketball; and, many other sports dangerous to their inherently defective constitution? Does estrogen weaken ligaments? After all, men have natural serum estrogen.

A baffling – buffoonery – of – bizarrie

The female hormone estrogen latches onto and weakens the ACL”

A scientific solution proposed to the problematic estrogen; has been put forth to counteract the ‘instability’ disease, linked to this hormone. Based on the assumption estrogen attacks the female ACL; causing ‘instability’ in the form of ligament laxity; a multi – faceted solution has been proposed. The solution is to administer young girls birth control pills to protect their ACLs (DeFroda, S. MD, et al, 2019).

Ostensibly, an outcome of such ‘evidence based science’; of, “we have data”; would be two – fold; one anticipated one unexpected. In order to suppress endogenous estrogen; such that it ‘stabilizes’ i.e., injury proofs, the female’s ‘unstable’ ACLs; could it at one and the same time resolve the social/political conflict over the reversal of Roe Vs. Wade?

With a mass administration of birth control pills, beginning with barely out of puberty girls; an ACL tear, the national disease of the Yin; will be expected drop dramatically; along with the unwanted birth rate. Problems {challenges} solved: healthy knees and depopulation.     

“Oral contraceptives stabilise hormone levels during the menstrual cycle and may function to either passively or actively stabilise the knee joint.” Hewett, T.

Why an ACL injury prone American female soccer player? A contagion of ignorance? An outcome of professing to the unsuspecting, a non – existent litany of injury predisposing female defects? USA universities, medical schools and the like, spew forth this “evidence based” nonsense; all while, the body count continues to rise.

Just as to how the human body is capable of, and, must adapt in sport; where “variable means to invariant ends” (Lashley 1933) are requisite; are unknown unknowns in academia.

An unsubstantiated belief in the frailty; the defective nature of the female body; is exacerbated by an overhang – of – overbearing – oversight from the amalgamation of medicaments; directly and indirectly involved in the training and care of the female athlete. The result is a fragilization of the “antifragile” (Nasim Taleb).

Solutions put forth to alleviate the ACL epidemic from the sports medicine community; only highlight their false claims of efficacy. That is to say,  their research based solutions to teach young women to run about and execute cutting maneuvers with conscious control of bending at hip, knee and ankle, would work to mitigate injury; is not just impractical; it is implausible.

The self – same sports medicine literature abound with false claims of “evidence based” solutions to mitigate ACL injury (even for just this one non – contact lower extremity malady); likewise, acknowledges the injury rates among American female athletes continue to rise:

“ACL injuries are more common among female athletes; however, far more common among female soccer players in the U.S., according to research. We did a study showing a 300% increase in ACL injuries in adolescents and teenagers,” Dr. Andrew Pearle, Chief of Sports Medicine at New York’s Hospital for Special Surgery, said of a study that ended in 2009. “So this is an incredible epidemic.”

Figure 3. An incidental slip and fall in the act of lifting a maximum weight in weightlifting is typically a non – event; especially for the female lifter. Knee injuries are rare; ankle injuries, especially Achilles tendon rupture, virtually non – existent. This despite the stress – strain energies the weightlifter’s body are subject are exponentially greater than injury prone American sports such as football, female soccer and basketball, lacrosse, even baseball and others. Charniga photo  

Figure 4. A debunking of a false truism: the dreaded knee valgus collapse.   That is to say: movement at ankle – knee – hip outside a linear alignment as is professed incessantly by the sports medicine crowd: medicine – rehabilitation – athletic training – academic- strength and conditioning i.e., the amalgamation of hands on practitioners in American sport. There are no knee injuries connected with the dreaded ”collapse”, male or female; in weightlifting sport. Charniga photo  

Bowing knees inward and/or outward; as depicted in the figure 4 is not connected with injury in weightlifting sport. On the contrary, it is an example of the quality of abundance (Latash, Zatsiorsky, 2016), the bowing inward of the knees is a natural reaction of straining to stand. It is a reflexive motion to accomplish a task with what seems superfluous movement; yet is in fact an expressed mechanical efficiency (Latash, Zatsiorsky, 2016). A comparison of this benign – to – weightlifting – movement of lower extremities; to the abject fear as expressed by sports medicine/medical/academic crowd; of even slight bowing of knees in the act of cutting and running about a soccer field: is laughable.  

It should be emphasized those features of the female body which are different from the male body, constitute difference of potential; not defects of constitution which stands in direct contrast to the false narratives replete the literature:

“Biomechanical and neuromuscular differences have been identified throughout the trunk and lower extremity that may increase non-contact
ACL injury risk in female athletes.” Daniel P. Bien, 2011 J Strength & Cond Research 25(1): 271 – 285, 2011

Some facts to consider:

/ the overall injury rate in Olympic weightlifting is very low; despite the fact stress/strain energies on the spine, knee and ankles are extremely high; male weightlifters suffer disproportionately more injuries than female lifters;

/ elite male track and field athletes have been found to have significantly higher risk of injury than females;

/ male ballet dancers typically have higher incidence of injury than females;

/ female wrestlers had significant lower rate of injury than males at the 2016 Olympics in Rio de Janeiro;

/ knee injuries, especially ACL tear are rare in female weightlifters. Over a span seven years the medical committee of the European weightlifting federation reported zero knee injuries among female lifters who competed at the European championships; and, zero ankle injuries, regardless of sex. 

Two factors come to mind in reference to the dramatically higher injury incidence of both the sexes in American sports; compared to the high intensity sports of weightlifting, track and field, wrestling:

1/ the influence of American academic/medical pseudo-science- overbearing – oversight is much less; if not essentially absent these sports, i.e., female athletes in these sports are less likely to be subject a ‘weak sister’ syndrome;

2/ it is not difficult to ascertain anecdotal corroboration of #1: “ACL injuries are more common among female athletes; however, far more common among female soccer players in the U.S., according to research.” Dr. Andrew Pearle, Chief of Sports Medicine at New York’s Hospital for Special Surgery, said of a study that ended in 2009. “So this is an incredible epidemic.”

Figure 5. Squatting all the way down; allowing shins to move well in front of the knee is safe because of the “wrapping” effect after knee angles of 80 – 90°. Fully flexing the knees distributes the stress evenly over the meniscus, i.e., “enhanced load distribution” (Hartman, 2013). Charniga, photo 

The unfortunate circumstances leading up to the catastrophic Achilles rupture depicted (on left) in figure 6; constitute a testimonial to the ignorance of the coaches, trainers, therapists, doctors, especially sports medicine doctors, and so forth, who espouse half bends and minimal displacement of shins in bending to perform conditioning exercises for the lower extremities. By way of contrast; exactly the same circumstances (left leg straight) with exponentially greater strain on Achilles tendon of the left ankle (with 150 kg barbell overhead) on the female weightlifter on the right is a non – event; just another day at the office.

Figure 6. WNBA player on left in figure ruptures Achilles tendon in ordinary movements about a basketball court – unloaded. She fell victim to a false and hazardous (to the health and well being of athletes) assumption constrained volatility is safe; bending unsafe. Note: Achilles ruptures, an all too common disease in American sport; are virtually unheard of in weightlifting. Olympic champion on the right in essentially identical disposition of lower extremity (left leg) with Achilles under exponentially greater stress/strain energy. Charniga photo on right 

Why an Estrogen Paradox?

The profligate of female defects of anatomy which can be found in the literature (see listings above); and, without fail emanates from an abundance of thoughtless thinkers, i.e., from the alphabet soup of the American sports medicine community: PhD, MD, CSCCa, CSCC, ATC, PTs, ad infinitum. As a rule, this group of thoughtless thinkers incessantly couch differences between the sexes within a stability/instability convexity. Of the first order, these ‘diseases of evolution’; these Darwinian wounds, would most certainly preclude female participation in sport; especially, participation in such an ultra high intensity sport like weightlifting. Yet compared with other sports; female weightlifters experience disproportionally low injury rates; this despite the extraordinary mechanical energy inflicted on the woman’s ‘frail’ body.

Figure 7. From left to right: Major league baseball player (2023 season) fractures hand fouling off a pitch. Female weightlifter (59 kg; 130 lbs) twists wrist/elbow/shoulder dropping 135 kg (297 lbs) barbell: uninjured. Charniga photo on right

Figure 8. From left: female weightlifter lifting 140 kg in the presence of significant stress/strain energy on Achilles tendon (left foot); without any tape or wrapping; sans risk of injury. On the right, female volleyball (USA) player on the court with ankle braces; football player with both ankles and feet heavily “spatted” for protection. Ankle and foot injuries, a national pastime {plague} of American sport; are very rare in weightlifting, despite exponentially higher energies on the foot and ankle. Charniga photo on left.   


In a nutshell, a myriad of medical professionals and various related practitioners involved in the hands on training and care of American athletes who collectively harbor false perceptions of stability/instability, stronger/weaker as differentiated by sex is a huge problematic. The problematic is made worse by means of endless repetition of numerous preposterous myths; such as, estrogen latching to and weakening ACL ligaments; the need to stabilize female hormones; the necessity to eliminate female muscle imbalances, i.e., to ‘normalize’ them in line with those of men, and so forth.    

Proof positive of this assertion: an injury epidemic; irregardless sex; is in play in the USA; even the literature says so: “So this is an incredible epidemic”.

A call for more research from the academic, sports medicine overhang; who constitute a substantial part of the problem; is not the solution. Who would ask arsonists to put out fires they start? Solutions to the acknowledged growing problem of injury incidence, especially the susceptibility of injury of the female athlete; entails casting aside illogical, irrational biases; phony science; even lies. Easier said than done.

As a rule, nature does not make mistakes suited for social stratification. There is nothing wrong with women’s bodies; despite what the sports medicine crowd thinks.  

Differentiation by sex has nothing to do with defect of constitution. Man – made changes to the constitution of either sex; a result of millenia of evolution, to participate in sport under reasonably safe conditions are unnecessary.    

The words stability and instability especially in reference to a differentiation of the sexes; are meaningless constructs: arbitrary ambiguities. Who and with what criteria determine hormone fluctuations are unstable; knee and ankle joints are unstable; ligaments loose?

A postscript from “Subliminal Delusion and Merriam Webster”, A. Charniga, A sports medicine recipe to wreak havoc on a super star; who was fine until he got to LA:

“To make a long story short. A budding super star pitcher/power hitter, a modern day Babe Ruth has come along; and, has undergone two major surgeries in the span of less than two years of his introduction to the big leagues; one on his pitching arm; the other to a knee. The surgery to his knee; the perceived problem of which; did not affect his play; just his ability to perform heavy knee joint straining squats with heavier weights.” Charniga, A. 2020

August 24, 2023

Shohei Ohtani‘s right elbow was fine until he tore his ulnar collateral ligament with a 94 mph fastball to Cincinnati‘s Christian Encarnacion-Strand on Wednesday, according to Los Angeles Angels manager Phil Nevin.

Baseball’s two-way superstar was back in the Angels’ lineup as a designated hitter Friday night against the New York Mets, two days after the injury ended his season as a pitcher and clouded his future months before potentially becoming a free agent.

Ohtani had Tommy John surgery in late 2018, following his AL Rookie of the Year season.


Los Angeles Angels star Shohei Ohtani had elbow surgery Tuesday, and his doctor said he expects the two-way star will be available as a hitter on opening day next season and will return to the mound as a pitcher in 2025.”

Could this have happened to the Babe?


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1/ “Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention” LaBella, C., Hennrikus, W., Hewett, T., Pediatrics May 2014, 133 (5) e1437-e1450; DOI:

2/ “Non-contact ACL injuries in female athletes: an International Olympic Committee current concepts statement,” P Renstrom, A Ljungqvist, E Arendt, B Beynnon,T Fukubayashi, W Garrett, T Georgoulis, T E Hewett, R Johnson,T Krosshaug, B Mandelbaum, L Micheli,G Myklebust, E Roos, H Roos, P Schamasch, S Shultz, S Werner, E Wojtys,L Engebretsen: 11-26-2017

3/ Staff, “oral Contraceptives could be protective against ACL injuries in female athletes”, protective-against-acl-injuries-in-female-athletes/preview/uspeditorial?utm_source=TrendMD&utm_medium=cpc&utm_campaign=US_Pharmacist_TrendMD_0

4/ Mancini, S.L., Dickin, C., Hankenmeier, D.A., Rolston, L., Wang, H., “Risk of anterior cruciate injury in female soccer athletes: A review. J. Orthopedics & Orthopedic Surg. 2021:2(1):13-21

5/ Sokolove, M., Warrior Girls, New York: Simon and Shuster, 131:2008

6/ Biewener, A,A., Animal Locomotion, Oxford University Press, 2007

7/ Rosenberg, C., Rosenberg, C., “The Female Animal: Medical and Biological Views of Women and their role in Nineteenth – century: 13. From Fair Sex to Feminism, Abingdon, UK, Routledge: 1987; republished 2004 


9/ “Catching up the Men,” Kenneth Dyer states that, “ Science therefore follows and does not predict human achievement.”