Translations

Scientific – Methodological Aspects of Training the Kazakhstan Select Team

Scientific – Methodological Aspects of Training the Kazakhstan Select Team

Ivan Sivokhin, Alexei NI, Enver Turkileri

Olimp 42-48:2-3:2012

Translated by Andrew Charniga, Jr.

Introduction

High results in weightlifting necessitate the search for new methodical approaches to enhance the effectiveness of training, especially in time for the most important competitions. Analysis of training and the trajectory of distinguished sportsmen’s results has shown that lifters execute a large volume of loading in the yearly cycle in the competition zone of intensity; and, this is the defining factor to achieving a fast rate of improvement.

An effective technological approach has been devised for the preparation of high class weightlifters based on actual work with the national select team. This approach should lend itself to latest scientific achievements in the area of sport training as well as the maximum utilization of the vast experiences of key specialists whom have achieved exceptional results in the practical work with weightlifters {1,2,3,4}.

Two time Olympic Champion Ilya Ilyn (KAZ) has never lost an international competition. Charniga photo

Creation of new training programs as well as evaluating their effectiveness experimentally enables us to enhance the quality of the training and achieve a faster rate of improvement.

A systematic approach is recommended for studying the entire training process in which traditional sport results are evaluated as a systemic – forming factor. Although, in our opinion {5} which is in agreement with other authors {6} the system – forming factors of sport training are the “motor actions” which are comparable to actual competitions in a given sport. During the training process all of the sportsman’s activities subordinate to the formation, development and perfectioning of motor actions corresponding to the specifics of competition conditions. All of the organism’s physiological (PHY), Biochemical (BIC), Biomechanical (BMC), psychological, and so forth; as well as the type of training (physical, technical, tactical, psychological, integral) are all designed to perfect the motor actions (spatial – time, dynamic, kinematic, rhythmic, coordination, and so forth {6}.

One can only achieve maximum results by learning the optimum motor actions. Well then, sport results depend on the effectiveness of the sportsman’s coordination performed at a precise instant {5,6,8,9}.

It is obvious the effectiveness of the training at all stages of the process of attaining sport-technical mastery depends on the systematic utilization of knowledge, as well as testing diagnostics of the organism’s systems (BMC, PHY, BIC), which in turn secure the necessary parameters of the motor actions.

Well then, the goal of the training is focused on the development and perfectioning of the coordination to perform the classic exercises (the snatch, the clean and jerk) with limit weights.

Essentially, weightlifting results are determined by the effectiveness of the athlete’s technique in the competition exercises, the developmental level of special physical qualities as well as the athlete’s ability to realize his/her potential under the specific conditions of high level competitions. Research shows the level of maximum and explosive strength determine the dynamic characteristics of the competition exercises and are very much interconnected with weightlifting results.

So, it is obvious the rate of improvement of weightlifting results basically is determined by the rise in maximum and explosive strength of the most important muscle groups; provided, the sportsmen have a high level of technical mastery. The most important stipulation being the sportsman’s ability to generate power in high speed movements, characteristic of the two competition exercises {8,9}.

Junior world Champion 1986 . Podobodova was 2012 Olympic champion for Kazakhstan. Charniga Photo

Scientific data shows that maximum strength is connected with the hypertrophy of both fast and slow twitch muscle fibers; but, the increase in explosive strength is connected with the selective hypertrophy of the fast twitch fibers {10}. Well then, it becomes patently obvious that most important goal of training is the selective hypertrophy of the fast twitch fibers of those muscles which are crucial to the performance of the competition exercises.  A number of conditions are necessary to accomplish this goal.

1/ A high intensity training load;

2/ Utilization of special preparatory exercises which conform to or exceed the dynamic characteristics of the competition exercises;

3/ The performance of exercises which conform to the structure of the competition exercises or the individual phases or fragments;

4/ Employing no more than 1 – 2 repetitions per set;

5/ Executing the fundamental loading in the individual exercises for a period of 12 – 20 minutes for 15 – 20 sets;

6/ Employ 15 – 20 minutes of passive rest between exercises;

7/ Increasing the number of training sessions to three times a day.

In order to tackle the problem of selective hypertrophy of the fast twitch muscle fibers, which affect the effectiveness of the training in weightlifting, it is necessary to take into consideration the following:

/ fast twitch muscle fiber is more predisposed to hypertrophy by means of an accumulation of myofibril mass {11}.

/ a proportional increase in strength in the higher speeds of muscle contraction accompany the increase in maximum strength through of selective hypertrophy of fast muscle fibers;

/ the rise in maximum strength as a result of selective hypertrophy of the fast twitch muscle fibers does not lead to a significant increase in the body’s muscle mass, because there is no expressed hypertrophy of the slow twitch muscle fibers;

/ the relatively speaking, lesser hypertrophy of the of the slow fibers will not create additional pressure in the muscle, which would negatively impact the strength of contraction of the fast muscle fibers {12};

/ the fast fibers do not experience an extraordinary accumulation of lactic acid as a result of the loading because the slow fibers actively absorb and utilize it {13};

/ the activation of the fast motor units, conjugate with the limit tension of CNS, stimulates the endocrine system and increases the concentration of hormones in the blood. {14}.

Originally on “loan” from China, Z. Chinshanlo won gold in 2102 at 53 kg for Kazakhstan. Charniga photo

Theoretical analysis permitted us to conclude the fundamental goal of the weightlifter’s training consists of increasing the myofibril mass of the fast fibers in those muscle groups crucial for the performance of the competition exercises. From this vantage point, it is rather interesting to note that the rate of improvement and the overall effectiveness of the yearly training will depend on enlarging the myofibrils, primarily in the fast fibers. This is one of the important factors defining the intensification of the formation of system – structure traces in the sportsman’s long – term adaptation to a specific loading {15}, from which depends, in the long run, the overall training effect within specific time frames {1,2,16,17}.

It is important to take into account a lot of factors in planning the intensification of the training.

  • Activeness of the fast motor units which reaches maximum 8 – 12 weeks after the onset of high intensity strength loading {16}.
  • Activeness of the endocrine systems {13, 15}.
  • Activeness of the genetic make – up of the muscle fibers, which determine the intensiveness of the synthesis of nucleic acids and proteins {13, 15, 18}.
  • Enhancing the concentration of amino acids in the body {13}.
  • Enhancing the permeability of the muscle cellular membrane for hormones and nutritional substances (13, 18}.

It is an important consideration that prolonged high intensity physical loading can result in widespread disruption of the muscle cells and contribute to suppression of the synthesis nucleic acids and proteins which diminishes the training effect {13, 19}. A Similar effect occurs with prolonged low intensity loading by diminishing the activeness of the fast muscle fibers.

Assimilating large volumes of loading in the competition zones of intensity, modeling the conditions and structure of competitions by means of exercise selection and the character of the work performed are all necessary conditions for a rapid adaptive re – construction of the organs and systems crucial to performance of the competition exercises {1,2,16,17}. This requires a training program of sufficient duration (over the span of a year – cycle, for instance) with a uni – directional emphasis; conforming precisely to the specifics of competition conditions {3,20}.

We conducted a careful biomechanical and physiological analysis of all of the traditional and non – traditional exercises employed by weightlifters in order to select only those exercises which conform to the biomechanical and physiological characteristics of the competition exercises as well as the selective hypertrophy of the fast fibers of the most important muscle groups {4,7}.

 

It is necessary to plan the weightlifter’s training by modeling the structure and conditions of competitions in order to enhance its effectiveness. We have laid out some typical model workouts and a base micro – cycle model which stipulate the number of sets and repetitions per set with the percentages based on the athlete’s maximum.

We believe this plan for the year cycle of training with its uni – directional emphasis on modeling the specific peculiarities of weightlifting competitions permits a higher rate of improvement for the high class weightlifter.

Model Training Sessions

Classic Snatch (the fundamental work portion):
1st series (attack):                   80 kg x 1×1; 90 kg x 1×1; 100 kg x 1×1

2nd series (attack):                  85 kg x 1×1; 95 kg x 1×1; 100 kg x 1×1

3rd series (attack):                   90 kg x 1×1; 95 kg x 1×1; 100 kg x 1×1

4th series (attack):                 80 kg 2×3

Rest 20 minutes

Classic Clean and Jerk (the fundamental work portion):

1st series (attack):                   110 kg x 1×1; 120 kg x 1×1; 130 kg x 1×1

2nd series (attack):                  115 kg x 1×1; 125 kg x 1×1; 130 kg x 1×1

3rd series (attack):                   120 kg x 1×1; 125 kg x 1×1; 130 kg x 1×1

4th series (attack):                 110 kg 2×3

Rest 20 minutes

Front Squat (the fundamental work portion):

1st series (attack):                   130 kg x 2×1; 140 kg x 2×1; 150 kg x 1×1

2nd series (attack):                  135 kg x 2×1; 145 kg x 2×1; 150 kg x 1×1

3rd series (attack):                   140 kg x 2×1; 145 kg x 2×1; 150 kg x 1×1

Model of a Base Meso – Cycle

Monday, Wednesday, Friday

 

10:00- 10:40 – Front Squat –   90% 2 x 1; 100% 1 x 3; 90%/2 x 3

11:00 – 11:40 – Classic Snatch- (80/1 x 1; 85/1 x 1)3

12:00 – 12:40 –  Clean & Jerk – (80% 1 + 2) x 1; 85%1 +1) x 1) x 3

16:00 – 16:40 – Classic Snatch- (80% 2×1; 90% 1×1; 95% 1×1) 3

17:00 – 17:40 – Clean & Jerk – (80%1 +2 x1; 90%(1+1)x1; 100% (1+1)x1)3

18:00 – 18:40 – Front Squat – 90% 2 x 1; 100% 1 x 3; 90%/2 x 3

21:00 – 21:40 – Classic Snatch – (80% 2 x1; 85% 1×1)3

22:00 – 22:40 – Clean & Jerk – (80% 1+2)x1; (85% 1+1)x1)3

Tuesday, Thursday, Saturday

10:00 – 10:10:30 – Front Squat – 85% 2×1; 95% 1×3; 90% 2×2

10:50 – 11:20 – Snatch from plinths – (80% 2×1; 85% 1×1)3

11:40 – 12:10 – Jerk from stands – (80% 2×1; 85% 1×1)3

17:00 – 17:40 – Classic Snatch – 80% 2×1; 85% 2×5

18:00 – 18:40 – Clean & Jerk – 80% (1+2)x1; 85% (1+1)5

19:00 – 19:40 –  Front Squat – 90% 2 x 1; 100% 1 x 3; 90% 2 x2

20:00 – 20:4 – Depth Jumps – 5 x 5

 

Aim of the research:

To experimentally substantiate the effectiveness of training by modeling the conditions and structure of competitions in the yearly cycle of preparation of high class weightlifters.

Methods and Organization of the Research

We conducted a pedagogical experiment over a period of two year cycles (2004 and 2005) in order to assess the effectiveness of our experimental program. Ten highly qualified sportsmen (MSIC, MMS), ages 16 – 26 were in the experimental group. The experimental group trained with a traditional program for the first year cycle {4}. The sportsmen trained the following year with the experimental program {21}. The composition of the experimental group did not change from the control and experimental periods. The subjects were unaware they were participating in an experiment.

An important stipulation for the implementation of this program is the planning of the Friday workout. This workout is an exact modeling of the competition conditions with limit weights in the classic exercises and the squats; regardless of the type of micro – cycle. The limit weights the sportsmen succeed in lifting at these workouts are a criterion of the how well the athletes adapt to the training loading. This information is used to manage the course their preparation.

The information obtained is utilized to make timely alterations to the training.

An extraordinarily large training load diminishes work capacity, which unavoidably necessitates inclusion of restorative training, along with a reduction of the intensity of the loading. Exercises essentially different in dynamic and speed characteristics to the competition exercises {8,9} were excluded from the training program.

Basically the exercises were performed 80 – 100% of maximum zones of intensity for 10 – 16 lifts of 1 – 2 repetitions per set. The fundamental work is performed in the presence of a high motor density for a period of 15 – 20 minutes; after which there is a 15 – 20 minute rest period.

The dynamics of the intensity of the loading are expressed as a percentage of the maximum result for each day of the week in the base micro – cycle; which has its own peculiarities. (presented in the diagram, figure 1). Many years of experience utilizing this model micro – cycle, as well as some scientific data allow us to conclude such a training method achieves a stable accumulation (chiefly in the fast muscle fibers) of intra – cellar structures which in turn define the intensity of the synthesis of the myo – fibrils {13}. This process leads to the selective hypertrophy of the fast muscle fibers; and, as a result, speed – strength indices increase as well as the dynamic characteristics of the movements and the results in the competition exercises.

Our training method allows the sportsmen to work at high power and avoid excessive staleness in the working muscles which negatively affects restoration and suppresses the synthesis of structural proteins in the muscle fibers {13,19}.

Results and Discussion

Presented in tables 1 and 2 are data from a comparative analysis are the basic indices of the loading for the preparatory and competition periods executed by the sportsmen in both the control and experimental groups over a year cycle. The following designations are: mean number of lifts (NL) – () and the standard deviation – (S) for each zone of intensity for the training exercise groups. A separate column is devoted to the NL with more than 90%. Also presented in the tables is the analogous data from 1988 during the preparation for the Seoul Olympics {22}.

 

An analysis of the results presented in the table shows the experimental program had a larger volume of lifts greater than 90%. This work was performed in exercises which are in conformity with the competition exercises.

There was a large volume of work in squats and jumping exercises. This selection was based on our own research which revealed that results in the competition exercises are determined by: 50% on maximum strength and 22% on the explosive strength of the lower extremities {7}. The emphasis was placed on such exercises as the front squat. The reasons for this are twofold. First, this exercise, identical to the recovery phase of the clean, strengthens the muscles which hold the barbell on the chest as well as those in lower extremities which are responsible for the actual recovery. Second, this exercise stimulates the endocrine system through the inclusion of reflex mechanisms {23}, which in turn raises the hormonal response to the training load {14, 15, 17, 18}.

A large, uni – directional in emphasis, training load which corresponds absolutely to the conditions and structure of weightlifting competitions, permits the accumulation of more expressed specific adaptations to the body which in turn is reflected in the rate of improvement (table 3).

Table 3.

# lifters

↑ kg 2004

↑ kg 2005

Difference kg

1

25

43

+18

2

12

28

+16

3

0

7

+7

4

10

21

+11

5

20

31

+11

6

5

20

+15

7

5

15

+10

8

10

12

+2

9

5

22

+17

10

15

25

+10

X;Y

10.7; S = 7.2

22.4; S= 9.7

11.7; (p<0.01)

  

Our experimental training allowed us to achieve a higher rate of improvement which an amounted to an average of 22.4 kg for the year, S=9.7 kg in the biathlon total which was 11.7 kg more than the preceding year (P<0.01).

Another point to be made, as to why the higher rate of improvement: our training plan is structured without large fluctuations and variations in the loading. Scientific data has proven an excessively large loading breaks down muscle tissue the body is unable to repair {13,18,19}. It is necessary to include restoration training after such a large loading with a significant reduction in both volume and intensity. This results in a reduced physiological loading of the fast twitch fibers.

Well then, in our opinion the first and second variants of the training will lead to a diminished effectiveness of the training process.

A number of publications {21} have confirmed our theoretical and experimental substantiation of our training program. The training program presented here was the training system used for preparing the Kazakhstan national team for the 2009 – 2012 Olympic cycle. The performance of Kazakhstan’s select weightlifting team during this Olympic cycle confirms the effectiveness of the experimental program in the practical sphere of preparing sportsmen for the World and Asian championships.

Maya Manez 2012 gold medalist for Kazakhstan originally from China. Charniga photo.

An individualized program was worked – out for each athlete with a specified number of characteristics for preparedness and prognostication of sport results which need to be reached within a specific time frame depending on the stage of training. Careful planning of the contents, structure, magnitudes of the volume and intensity as well as the dynamics of the results in the classic and special preparatory exercises are involved in planning the training program. Special attention is focused on control of the number of lifts in the competition zones of intensity as well as weights close to or exceeding personal records. These controls are carried out weekly and are compared with the results we planned for. Complex control of the individual training programs and comparison of the results with the model intermediate characteristics allows us to assess the various components of preparedness and make the required corrections in a timely manner during the course of training.

We have presented the basic organization of the Kazakhstan select team’s preparation. The quality and effectiveness of the training for the world and Olympic championships has been demonstrated through practical experience.  We have amassed considerable practical experience employing the training model and coupled with our research, feel we are able to continue to perfect the training process of the high class sportsman.

 

Conclusions

1. Our research shows that the sportsmen training with our experimental program which models the competition structure and conditions maximally, incorporating an unidirectional training vector allowed the sportsmen to realize a higher rate of improvement in a year cycle; which is in conformity with the data obtained by other authors {1,2,3,13,17,20}.

2. The national select team of the Republic of Kazakhstan trained according to the experimental program; which in turn, enabled them to achieve a stable rise in sport mastery over year cycle and obtain high results at the Asian, World and London Olympic Games.

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