Translations

Managing the Training of Weightlifters

Managing the Training of Weightlifters

R.A. Roman, Moscow

Weightlifting: Sbornik Statei

9 – 17:1971

Translated by Andrew Charniga, Jr.

Sportivny Press©

2007

R.A. Roman

 

In order to manage the training process it is necessary know the parameters which stipulate the weightlifter’s improvement, their interconnection and significance; to know how these parameters change with training.

 

This information is required so that the weightlifter trains correctly.

 

The results in weightlifting are constantly rising. For instance, in 1956 the triathlon results of the 56 kg class were 342.5 kg; in 1968 – 367.5 kg and in 1972 (according to A.V. Chernyak’s data) the anticipated result will be 377.5 kg (actual result 377.5 kg Ed.). The results for a 82.5 kg lifter in 1956 was 422.5; in 1968 487.5 kg and in 1972 the anticipated result is 510 kg.

 2

Table 1. Anticipated and Actual Results in the Triathlon in the Olympics (kg) According to A.V. Chernyak.

Wt. Cl.

1956

 

1960

 

1964

 

1968

 

1972

1976

 

Ant.

Act.

Ant.

Act.

Ant.

Act.

Ant.

Act.

Ant.

Act.

56

340

34.5

352.5

345

365

357.5

377.5

367.5

377.5

387.5

60

357.5

355

372.5

372.5

387.5

397.5

400

392.5

412.5

427.5

67.5

382.5

380

397.5

400

412.5

432.5

430

437.5

445

462.5

75

420

420

437.5

437.5

455

447.5

472.5

482.5

480

497.5

82.5

442.5

447.5

460

455

477.5

475

495

487.5

510

527.5

90

462.5

470

480

475

497.5

487.5

515

522.5

542.5

562.5

Ov.90

515

532.5

547.5

537.5

580

580

602.5

585

620

640

 

Notations: ANT – anticipated 1st place result competition; Actual – actual 1st place result of competition.

 

Naturally one of the most important aspects of planning the weightlifter’s training should be an orientation to the anticipated results of next few years. However, in order to reach international level results in the lightest weight class one has to improve by (from a mean of 190 kg of the first year of training) 152.5 kg in 1956; 177.5 kg in 1968 and by 1972 an improvement of almost 190 kg would be needed.

 

An 82.5 kg lifter would need the following improvement from an initial result of 220 kg: 222.5 kg in 1956; 267.5 kg in 1968 and by 1972 already 290 kg of improvement would be needed.

 

The optimum age range for reaching record results in weightlifting is 23 – 29 years (an average of 26 years). So, from age 16 (the usual age lifters begin training) to age 26, i.e., the athlete has 9 years to raise his results from the beginning level (reached in the first year of training) to the anticipated international level results. The length of the period of growth in results depends on the weight class and encompasses approximately 11 – 16 years. The heavier the weight class the longer the potential growth period.

 

The improvement of results with the methodic employed at the present time essentially ceases: after 12 years for the 56 and 60 kg lifter; after 13 years for the 67.5 kg; after 14 years and after 15 – 16 years for the heavyweights (according to the research of A. S. Medvedyev, R. A. Roman, A. V. Chernyak, 1966).

 

When the athlete has to drop a significant amount of bodyweight for competitions the growth of results ceases earlier: on the average after the 8th year of training (7 – 10 years). You have to plan the athlete’s training such that he achieves record results by the time he reaches age 26.

 

Consequently, one of the stipulations of managing training is determine precisely the specific rise in results for each year of training. The largest improvement usually occurs in the first 5 years. For example, the improvement of the 56 kg athlete (data from 1966) is 140 kg and 170 kg for the 75 kg. Subsequently, the improvement diminishes significantly.

 

In order for a 56 kg athlete to reach international level results in 1965 (342.5 kg), the sportsman has to add to his results another 12.5 kg after the 5 – year period of rapid growth (190 + 140 kg = 330 kg). Likewise, in order to reach the international level results in 1968 (367.5 kg) after 5 years of training the same sportsman must improve by another 37.5 kg and by 1972 the improvement above and beyond the expected would be 50 kg.

 

 

In 1956, a 82.5 kg lifter would have to improve by 52 kg, in 1968 100 kg, and in 1972 an improvement of 120 kg would be necessary.

 

 

 

Table 2. Mean Improvement in the Triathlon (kg) Over Training Years Required to Achieve Record Results in 1976.

Wt. class

56

60

67.5

75

82.5

90

Result after

1st 3 mos

182

191

206

222

235

250

Increase in kg/yr

1

60.2

64

69

75

79

84

2

42.7

46

49.5

53.5

56.5

60.2

3

30.9

33.8

36.5

39.3

42.8

44.5

4

22.1

24.5

26.4

28.5

30.0

32.2

5

16.2

18.4

19.8

21.4

22.7

24

6

11.8

13.8

14.8

16

17

18

7

8.2

10

10.7

11.6

12.3

13.1

8

6.0

7.6

8.2

8.9

9.5

10.1

9

4.4

6

6.4

6.9

7.4

6.9

10

3.1

4.6

5.0

5.3

5.7

6.0

Anticipated by 1976

387.5±

427.5±10

462.5±10

497.5±10

527.5±10

562.5±10

 

If the rate of improvement over the first 5 – years does not increase the sportsman will be unable to achieve record results in the following period when the rate of improvement diminishes significantly (and it will be necessary for him to improve even more).

 

Well then, in order to achieve international class results by age 26 a higher rate of improvement is necessary.

 

For instance, in order to achieve record results in 1976 (according to the data of A.V. Chernyak) the sportsman’s yearly improvement for the various weight classes should correspond to the results presented in table 2.

 

It is necessary to take into account the sportsman’s height and consequently his switch to a heavier weight class. Only athletes whose height conforms to a given weight class can achieve record results (table 3).

 

Table 3. The Dependence Between Weight Class and Height (cm)

Qualification

56

60

67.5

75

82.5

90

 

Novice

160

163.5

169.5

177

182

186.5

±5

Class II

156

160

166.5

172.5

177.5

182.5

±4.2

Master of Sport

152.5

156

162.5

168.5

173.5

177.0

±3.1

International

Master of Sport

148.5

152

158.5

164

169

173

±1.5

 

 

So, a 56 kg lifter can only achieve high results at a height of 148.5 cm. If your height is 165 cm (this height is appropriate for the 75 kg class) and you compete in the in the 67.5 kg class, it will be difficult to achieve high results. The athlete has to switch to ‘his” weight class in order to be able to achieve high results.

 

For example, only after the following athletes switched to “their” weight class did they become world record holders and world champions: Y. Katsura, V. Belayev, B. Selitsky, K. Kangasniemi and others.

 

Therefore, in planning an athlete’s preparation you have to take into account the results needed not for the weight class he is in at the present, but the weight class he needs to occupy in the future. Furthermore, you have to bear in mind that over the course of the athlete’s training he may change weight classes three, or even four times.

 

All of this has to be taken into account in order to plan the contents of the athlete’s training so that he will be able to achieve the desired results.

 

So, the task of managing the athlete’s training is to determine specifically which exercises, in what volume, in which sequence, ratio and with what sort of intensity should be done at each specific stage of training in order to achieve the planned result in the requisite time.

 

Each year it is necessary to achieve ever bigger absolute results, whereas the time to achieve these results remains same. The athlete has to employ the alternating method of training for his preparation. It is common knowledge that the training effect increases with the increasing weight of the barbell up to specific limits. Weights which are 85 – 95% of maximum yield the best results. Heavier weights are less effective (table 4).

 

 

Table 4. The optimum volume of exercise with various weights in the general volume of training.

 

Periods

Up to 70%

70-75%

80-95%

100% & more

Preparatory

25

30

40

5

Competition

20

25

42

13

 

 

The athlete perfects chiefly speed – strength qualities with 80 – 95% weights. This weight range is the optimum for perfecting the technique of the classic exercises. Weights less than 80% for the most part improve speed and 95% and heavier weights improve strength. Training with weights 115 – 120% can lead to stagnation and even lower results.

 

 

The volume of the various exercises employed in training characterize the emphasis of the preparation: strength, speed – strength and speed. However our experiences training such distinguished athletes as L. Zhabotinsky Y. Talts and V. Kurentsov shows that one makes more progress when the emphasis is shifted towards speed. Therefore, one has to plan the general emphasis of the training for each period.

 

Obviously altering the general contents of the training can alter its emphasis i.e. to develop those qualities which at a given moment are necessary: speed – strength or endurance.

 

A general criterion with which one can determine the emphasis of the training is the coefficient of intensity Ki (%). If an athlete trains at a coefficient of intensity of 26%, i.e., if the intensity of his training (the average weight of the barbell) is 26% of the triathlon total the training reflects a speed – strength emphasis. If the coefficient of intensity is greater than 26% the emphasis is strength. The greater the coefficient of intensity, the greater the strength emphasis of the training.

 

The training emphasis is speed if the coefficient of intensity is less than 26%.

 

It has been established that the weightlifter’s results depend on the volume of classic press, snatch and the clean and jerk exercises i.e., on the quantity of actual competition and close to them exercises i.e. (r = 0.48 and 0.61). The most important factor which for the most part one’s results depend are the number of pressing snatching and clean and jerk exercises performed with 80% and higher weights (r = 0.84). This volume should be no less than 20% of the general volume of loading. The most vivid example of this regularity are the high results achieved by sportsmen who adhere to this.

 

 

However, you have to bear in mind there is a negative correlation between the number of lifts with less than 70% of maximum and results (r = -0.75). That is to say, that a large number of lifts with small weights inhibits improvement, especially for the highly qualified sportsman.

 

Consequently, it becomes necessary to control constantly the contents of training and make the required corrections.

 

The contents of training needs to programmed such that one obtains the highest improvement in the triathlon total. You need to bear in mind that a predominant improvement of the snatch results in greater improvement of the triathlon total than a predominant improvement of the press. And, this is determined by what sort of ratio between the exercises we give the sportsman.

 

At the present time the volume of the press, the snatch and the clean and jerk in the training of highly qualified sportsmen comprises 70% of all lifts (press 30%, snatch 22% and clean and jerk exercises 18%).

 

Taking into consideration that when improvement of the snatch predominates the triathlon total improves at a faster rate; a better plan (especially for those lagging in the snatch) would be the following ratio: pressing exercises 28%, 24% snatching and 18% clean and jerk exercises (cleans are employed for the press).

 

You need to make sure that no less than 25 – 35% of all lifts are in the classic exercises (press, snatch, clean and jerk).

 

You must plan the required number of lifts with 90% and higher in the press, the snatch and the clean and jerk.  The number of such lifts should be an average of 26 in the preparatory month and 45 in the competition month.

 

Of no small importance are the general number of training lifts. The general volume of training should comprise 8,000 – 10000 lifts per year in the first three years of training and 10,0000 lifts per year after that. The general volume of training diminishes when the athlete reaches high results.

 

 

The weightlifter utilizes the entire arsenal of exercises in his training. Here the results in one exercise (either positive or negative) depend on the results of another; and each has a varying degree of influence directly or indirectly on the competition exercise. This is the basic principle for selection of training exercises and utilizing them in training.

 

For example, a high correlation has been established between the snatch and the squat (r = 0.875), between the snatch and the static pull (r = 0.87) and between the snatch and the vertical jump (r = 0.885). There are similar correlations with the clean and jerk. The best result in the snatch should average no less than 62% of the squat; the best result in the clean and jerk should average no less than 82% of the squat.(A. V. Chernyak’s data.)

 

In order to improve one’s results in the snatch or the clean and jerk you need to increase results in all of the indicated exercises above the (in the words of V. Diachkov) base levels. For example, in order to snatch 150 kg an athlete needs to squat an average of 250 kg, static pull 360 kg and be able to vertical jump 89 cm. In order to achieve 150 kg in the clean and jerk you should squat with an average of 186 kg, static pull 270 kg and vertical jump 80 cm.

 

Achievements in the snatch and the clean and jerk depend on the athlete’s ability to lift the barbell to a specific height in the snatch and the clean. The required heights of lifting the barbell in pulls have been determined for sportsmen of various height and qualification (see A.V. Chernyak, Tiazheloathlet, FiS, 1970).   

 

 

The results in each exercise allow one to decide which ones the weightlifter needs to focus on in a given training stage. This is the essence of managing the athlete’s training.

 

It is necessary to focus on an indicator such as the quality of performing an “explosive” single movement.

 

In the past we have found instances where an athlete could lift 100 kg three times in the snatch (or press), yet be unable to lift 105 kg once. That is to say, the athlete has trained only to perform multiple lifts per set; the athlete worked on strength endurance not the quality of a single explosive effort.

 

 

Yet, the skill to perform a single explosive effort is a key quality for the weightlifter, because you only have to lift a limit weight in competition one time. A single explosive effort is a quality which should be reinforced daily, around which the training has to be managed, i.e., you have to take into the account the distribution of lifts perfecting this quality.

 

The achievement of high results within a specific time period is of great significance to managing training. Is it possible to “guide” the athlete to high sport form in a specific month or on a specific day? Practice shows this is possible.

 

The first stipulation for achieving high results is altering the contents of training. To do this it is necessary:

 

  • diminish the general volume of the month’s training (it is common knowledge that it is difficult to achieve high results against a backdrop of a large volume of training);
  • increase the portions of press, snatching and clean  and jerk exercises especially with weights from 80% and higher of maximum;
  • increase the  quantity of competition exercises especially with weights of 90% and more;
  • diminish the quantity of lifts with small weights (less than 70%).

 

The second condition which enables one to achieve a high result is the final period where limit weights are attempted before a competition (for example, 97 – 100% weights are lifted no later 14 – 10 days before a competition, 90% from 4 – days and so forth), as well as a diminished general intensity and volume of training in the final week.

 

As a result of these measures a super – compensation occurs allowing the athlete to achieve a high result.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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